Efficacy and safety of single versus multiple intralesional immunotherapy with purified protein derivative (PPD) in the treatment of multiple verruca vulgaris.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Despite the numerous studies on the use of purified protein derivative (PPD), a protein extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in verruca vulgaris, there is no standardized regimen, and efficacy of […]

» Read more

Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: The safety, efficacy, and appropriate timing of isoniazid therapy to prevent tuberculosis in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy are unknown.In this […]

» Read more

Community-wide Screening for Tuberculosis in a High-Prevalence Setting.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: The World Health Organization has set ambitious targets for the global elimination of tuberculosis. However, these targets will not be achieved at the current rate of progress.We performed a […]

» Read more

Preventing Infectious Complications When Treating Non-Malignant Immune-Mediated Hematologic Disorders.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Immunosuppressants, targeted antibody therapies, and surgical splenectomy are amongst the treatment choices for immune-mediated non-malignant hematologic disorders, with infection being the most common non-hematological adverse event from these therapies. […]

» Read more

Treatment as prevention trials and ending AIDS: what do we know, when did we know it, and what do we do now?

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: HIV remains a significant global public health problem. Treatment as prevention of HIV and TB illness, death and transmission was proposed in 2006 as a means to end the […]

» Read more

Cutaneous tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: description of a series of 75 cases.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Brazil is one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden countries of the world. Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare form of extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. This study aimed to […]

» Read more

Latent tuberculosis screening and treatment among asylum seekers: a mixed methods study.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Evidence on conditions for implementation of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection screening and treatment among asylum seekers is needed to inform TB control policies. We used mixed-methods to evaluate the […]

» Read more

Nationwide analysis of treatment outcomes in children and adolescents routinely treated for tuberculosis in The Netherlands.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: As a vulnerable population, children and adolescents with tuberculosis (TB) are faced with many challenges, even for those who live in low TB incidence countries. We aimed to evaluate […]

» Read more

Isoniazid and host immune system interactions: a proposal for a novel comprehensive mode of action.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: The known mode of action of isoniazid (INH) is to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis following activation by the bacterial catalase-peroxidase enzyme KatG in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This simplistic […]

» Read more

High rate of indeterminate results of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube test, third generation, in patients with systemic vasculitis.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: To describe the frequency of QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube test® (QFT-GIT) indeterminate results due to no response to phytohaemagglutinin A stimulation in the control tube in vasculitis patients prior to […]

» Read more

Gelsolin: a new biomarker of disease activity in SLE patients associated with HDL-c.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: To identify potential biomarkers of disease activity analysing the proteome of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles from SLE patients in clinical remission and when they develop a flare compared with […]

» Read more

Chloroquine differentially modulates coronary vasodilation in control and diabetic mice.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Chloroquine (CQ) is a traditional medicine to treat malaria. There is increasing evidence that CQ not only induces phagocytosis but also regulates vascular tone. However, there are few reports […]

» Read more

Clinical features, outcomes and prognostic factors of tuberculous meningitis in adults worldwide: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical features, outcomes, and prognostic factors for TBM in […]

» Read more

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Commission: 2019 update: epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant and incurable tuberculosis.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Commission on drug-resistant tuberculosis was published in 2017, which comprehensively reviewed and provided recommendations on various aspects of the disease. Several key new developments regarding […]

» Read more

The effects of insecticides on two splice variants of the glutamate-gated chloride channel receptor of the major malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Between half to one million people die annually from malaria. Anopheles gambiae mosquitos are major malaria vectors. Unfortunately, resistance to currently used A. gambiae control agents has emerged, creating […]

» Read more

Retinal Complications in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients Treated with Antimalarial Drugs.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) are key drugs in systemic lupus (SLE) and related diseases. Retinal toxicity remains the most concerning complication. We studied factors potentially associated with retinal […]

» Read more

A Treatment-Decision Score for HIV-Infected Children With Suspected Tuberculosis.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Diagnosis of tuberculosis should be improved in children infected with HIV to reduce mortality. We developed prediction scores to guide antituberculosis treatment decision in HIV-infected children with suspected tuberculosis.HIV-infected […]

» Read more

Accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in a multicentre cohort study.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay has greatly improved the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and identification of resistance to rifampicin (RIF). However, sensitivity of Xpert remains poor for pleural fluid […]

» Read more

Critically Ill Patients with the HIV: 40 Years Later.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: The development of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) in the mid-nineties has dramatically modified the clinical presentation of critically ill HIV-infected patients. Most of cART-treated patients ageing with controlled HIV […]

» Read more

Live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine MTBVAC versus BCG in adults and neonates: a randomised controlled, double-blind dose-escalation trial.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Infants are a key target population for new tuberculosis vaccines. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidate MTBVAC in adults and infants in […]

» Read more

Tuberculosis among asylum-seekers in Milan, Italy: Epidemiological analysis and evaluation of interventions.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: In low-incidence countries of the European Union (EU), vulnerable populations are largely responsible for the lack of a faster decline of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate [1]. Above all, […]

» Read more

Praziquantel Ameliorates CCl4 -induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice by Inhibiting TGF-?/Smad Signalling via Upregulating Smad7 in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Praziquantel (PZQ) is a schistosomicide which has been used for more than 30 years due to its efficiency, safety and mild side effects. Previous studies showed that the prolonged […]

» Read more

A systematic review of comorbidities and outcomes of adult patients with pleural infection.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: Pleural infection remains an important cause of mortality. This study aimed to investigate worldwide patterns of pre-existing comorbidities and clinical outcomes of patients with pleural infection.Studies reporting on adults […]

» Read more

Fluoroquinolones and isoniazid resistant TB: implications for the 2018 WHO guidance.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Abstract: 2018 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the treatment of isoniazid (H) resistant (Hr) tuberculosis recommend a four-drug regimen- rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), pyrazinamide (Z) and levofloxacin (Lfx)- with […]

» Read more

Transfusion Volume for Children with Severe Anemia in Africa.

Bookmark this %label%(0)

No account yet? Register

Severe anemia (hemoglobin level, <6 g per deciliter) is a leading cause of hospital admission and death in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends transfusion of 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight for anemia, regardless of hemoglobin level.In this factorial, open-label trial, we randomly assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with a hemoglobin level of less than 6 g per deciliter and severity features (e.g., respiratory distress or reduced consciousness) to receive immediate blood transfusion with 20 ml per kilogram or 30 ml per kilogram. Three other randomized analyses investigated immediate as compared with no immediate transfusion, the administration of postdischarge micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality.A total of 3196 eligible children (median age, 37 months; 2050 [64.1%] with malaria) were assigned to receive a transfusion of 30 ml per kilogram (1598 children) or 20 ml per kilogram (1598 children) and were followed for 180 days. A total of 1592 children (99.6%) in the higher-volume group and 1596 (99.9%) in the lower-volume group started transfusion (median, 1.2 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) volume of total blood transfused per child was 475±385 ml and 353±348 ml, respectively; 197 children (12.3%) and 300 children (18.8%) in the respective groups received additional transfusions. Overall, 55 children (3.4%) in the higher-volume group and 72 (4.5%) in the lower-volume group died before 28 days (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 1.08; P?=?0.12 by log-rank test). This finding masked significant heterogeneity in 28-day mortality according to the presence or absence of fever (>37.5°C) at screening (P=0.001 after Sidak correction). Among the 1943 children (60.8%) without fever, mortality was lower with a transfusion volume of 30 ml per kilogram than with a volume of 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.69). Among the 1253 children (39.2%) with fever, mortality was higher with 30 ml per kilogram than with 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.49). There was no evidence of differences between the randomized groups in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days.Overall mortality did not differ between the two transfusion strategies. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development, United Kingdom; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).

» Read more
1 2